数据文件(Data Files)

除了 Jekyll 的内建变量之外,你还可以指定用于 Liquid 模板系统 的自定义数据。

Jekyll 支持从 _data 目录下的 YAMLJSONCSVTSV载入数据。

这个强大的特性可以帮你避免模板中的重复,并能在不修改 _config.yml 的情况下设置网站特定的选项。

插件和主题也可以通过数据文件来配置变量。

数据目录

The _data folder is where you can store additional data for Jekyll to use when generating your site. These files must be YAML, JSON, TSV or CSV files (using either the .yml, .yaml, .json, .tsv, or .csv extension), and they will be accessible via site.data.

示例: 成员列表

这是一个数据文件的简单示例,用以避免在模板中复制粘贴大段代码:

文件 _data/members.yml:

- name: Eric Mill
  github: konklone

- name: Parker Moore
  github: parkr

- name: Liu Fengyun
  github: liufengyun

_data/members.csv:

name,github
Eric Mill,konklone
Parker Moore,parkr
Liu Fengyun,liufengyun

This data can be accessed via site.data.members (notice that the file’s basename determines the variable name and therefore one should avoid having data files with the same basename but different extensions, in the same directory).

你现在可以在模板中使用该成员列表了:

<ul>
{% for member in site.data.members %}
  <li>
    <a href="https://github.com/{{ member.github }}">
      {{ member.name }}
    </a>
  </li>
{% endfor %}
</ul>

子目录

Data files can also be placed in sub-folders of the _data folder. Each folder level will be added to a variable’s namespace. The example below shows how GitHub organizations could be defined separately in a file under the orgs folder:

In _data/orgs/jekyll.yml:

username: jekyll
name: Jekyll
members:
  - name: Tom Preston-Werner
    github: mojombo

  - name: Parker Moore
    github: parkr

In _data/orgs/doeorg.yml:

username: doeorg
name: Doe Org
members:
  - name: John Doe
    github: jdoe

The organizations can then be accessed via site.data.orgs, followed by the file name:

<ul>
{% for org_hash in site.data.orgs %}
{% assign org = org_hash[1] %}
  <li>
    <a href="https://github.com/{{ org.username }}">
      {{ org.name }}
    </a>
    ({{ org.members | size }} members)
  </li>
{% endfor %}
</ul>

Example: Accessing a specific author

Pages and posts can also access a specific data item. The example below shows how to access a specific item:

_data/people.yml:

dave:
    name: David Smith
    twitter: DavidSilvaSmith

The author can then be specified as a page variable in a post’s front matter:

---
title: sample post
author: dave
---

{% assign author = site.data.people[page.author] %}
<a rel="author"
  href="https://twitter.com/{{ author.twitter }}"
  title="{{ author.name }}">
    {{ author.name }}
</a>

For information on how to build robust navigation for your site (especially if you have a documentation website or another type of Jekyll site with a lot of pages to organize), see Navigation.

CSV/TSV Parse Options

The way Ruby parses CSV and TSV files can be customized with the csv_reader and tsv_reader configuration options. Each configuration key exposes the same options:

converters: What CSV converters should be used when parsing the file. Available options are integer, float, numeric, date, date_time and all. By default, this list is empty. encoding: What encoding the files are in. Defaults to the site encoding configuration option. headers: Boolean field for whether to parse the first line of the file as headers. When false, it treats the first row as data. Defaults to true.

Examples:

csv_reader:
    converters:
      - numeric
      - datetime
    headers: true
    encoding: utf-8
tsv_reader:
    converters:
      - all
    headers: false